HN1400 - Occupational Health and Safety

Winter 2016

Welcome to Occupatioal Health and Safety: This is an introductory course in the fundamental principles and practices of occupational health and safety (OH&S). A solid understanding of OH&S issues, legislation and programs is essential to create an effective OH&S program. The learner will explore development of OH&S; costs of accidents, injuries and workplace illnesses; legislation and regulation; hazards and agents; hazard recognition and assessment; workplace compensation; accident investigation; and OH&S program management. Learners will have the opportunity to apply various OH&S practices and techniques using case studies and simulations and to obtain WHMIS certification.

Topics Covered:
1.0 Introduction and Development of Occupational Health and Safety
2.0 Costs of Accidents, Injuries and Workplace Illnesses
3.0 Legislation and Regulation
4.0 Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS)
5.0 Hazards and Agents
6.0 Hazard Recognition and Assessment
7.0 Workplace Compensation (Workplace Health, Safety and Compensation Commission)
8.0 Accident Investigation
9.0 Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) Program Management
10.0 Emerging Issues / Topics

Kelloway, K.E. and Francis, L. (2010). Management of Occupational Health and Safety (4th or 5th ed.). Toronto: Nelson Canada. ISBN-10: 017650248; ISBN-13: 9780176502485

How you will be evaluated:

Evaluation Item
Grade Achieved
Detail (Complete details of each project/test will be discussed/distributed in class)
Case/Question Preparation 1

Assignment 1 – of 3 @ 5%

For a three (3) week period review daily online/printed/electronic news for articles pertaining to OHS. Report at least 5 articles.
Answer the following: * Write a brief summary of the issues in each article
  • Are the media stakeholders in Safety?
  • What roles does the media play?
  • What OHS issues seem to be garnering the most attention?
  • Include the article
Due February 6
Case/Question Preparation 2

Assignment 2 – of 3 @ 5%

Under Canadian legislation it is the responsibility of employers to ensure workers have a safe environment. But what about first responders such as the police. Recent events in Canada have shown that such a policy may not easily work in practice where the work is inherently risky.So, if the work is risky should there be some form of compensation for that risk? First responders are arguing they should receive full salary compensation: Read the following:
A. You are the government: Write a compelling argument against 100% compensation
B. You are the union: Write a compelling argument against 100% compensation
Due February 27
Case/Question Preparation 3

Assignment 3 – of 3 @ 5%
On 12 March 2009 a Cougar Helicopters' Sikorsky S-92A on a flight to the Hibernia oil production platform had a total loss of oil in the transmission's main gear box. The flight crew descended to 800 feet and headed towards St. John's. Approximately 35 nautical miles from St. John's, during an attempted ditching, the helicopter struck the water in a high rate of descent. One passenger survived with serious injuries and the other seventeen occupants of the helicopter died of drowning.
A. Based on your review of the TSB report into the accident, discuss the possible:
  1. Ergonomic factors
  2. Human factors
  3. Situational factors
  4. Environmental factors
that lead to the crash of Cougar 491?

See: Canadian Transportation Safety Board Aviation Investigation Report A09A0016: Cougar 491
Due: March 20
Test 1 @ 15% - Ch 1-3

Test 2 @ 15% - Ch 4-7

Research Paper/Presentation

WHMIS Certification
Final Exam


Chapter 1 - Introduction and Rationale to Management of OHS

Chapter 2 - Legislative Framework

Chapter 3 - Workers Compensation

Test 1 - Chapters 1-3
HN1400 Occupational Health and Safety
Quiz 1 – Chapters 1-3
Paul Tilley

The exam will consist of two parts:
  • Part 1 - 20 Fill-in type questions @ 20% (with attached word list)
  • Part 2 – 30 Multiple Choice @ 30%
  • Part 3 - 4 Short Answer question @ 12.5% each taken from the following pool of questions:
Key Study Points:
  • History of OHS in Canada
  • Major goal(s) of OHS in Canada
  • Key Stakeholders in OHS
  • Role of Human resource Professionals in OHS
  • The Three E’s of OHS
  • Key Elements of OHS systems
  • Duties and responsibilities of major players in OHS
  • WHMIS – purpose, Labels, MSDS, Training
  • Goals and methods of Workers Compensation Boards
  • Social goals of workers compensation
  • Assessment/determination of premium rates for works compensation

Identifying & Managing Hazards and Agents

Chapter 4 - Physical Agents - in this chapter we will look at the work related problems associated with Noise, Vibration, Thermal Stress and Radiation
Notes: Chapter 4 - Physical Agents

Physical Agents are sources of energy that can cause injury. They may exist in the workplace as a matter of course (Ambient) or they may exists intermittently and cause injury from a single exposure (Acute)

1) Noise - Any unwanted sound
  • The human ear can only hear a certain range of sounds. Sounds may fall below a threshold of hearing and not be heard or above a frequency that cannot be heard.
  • There are three types of effects that come from exposure to noise:
    • Physiological - through conductive and senatorial hearing loss;
    • Sociological: Affects the body, nervous system, digestive system;
    • Psychological - affects us psychologically
  • Governments have implements noise exposure standards
  • Noise can be controlled in three ways:
    • 1) Reduce the noise at the source
    • 2) Move the worker away from the source
    • 3) use noise protection PPE

2) Vibration - An oscillating motion of a particle or a body moving about a reference position.
  • Vibrations are a health hazard for three reasons: It can cause whole body vibration, segmental vibration and it can cause noise.
  • Vibration can be either low or high frequency
  • Health effects of vibration: affects muscles, affects vision, alters brain electrical activity

3) Thermal Stress - body gets too hot or too cold
  • Three methods of heat transfer:
    • Conduction - two surfaces are in contact,
    • Convection - one surface adds heat to surroundings and
    • Radiation - energy transferred through electromagnetic energy.
      • Ionizing radiation - any form of radiation that produces ions (nuclear energy - can have serious effects on the body)
      • Non-ionizing radiation - any form of radiation that is lower power (isolation, and PPE can protect)

Chapter 5 - Chemicals and Biologics
In this chapter we will look at the problems associated with chemical and biological substances that are often found in the workplace.
  • Chemical agents are hazards that are created by the one or any combination of a chemicals and their reactions
  • Biological agents are hazards are biological (living - mold, fungus etc.)
  • 80% of all Occupational illnesses are caused by chemicals
  • The level of hazard is measured by its Toxicity
  • There are 4 routes of entry into the body
    • Respirations (nose)
    • Skin
    • Ingestion (mouth)
    • Penetration (cut)

Chapter 6 Psychosocial Hazards

Psychosocial hazards are hazards that result from stress or stress related activity on the job. Workplace stress is recognized as a major problem in today’s workplace and it has a definite cost to business in the form of lost productivity and lost time issues.


There are several classifications of the types of events that bring on stress in the workplace. These events are known as stressors.
  • Acute Stressors - these stressors have a specific start time, are high intensity, are typically short in duration and are relatively rare. e.g.: a fire in the workplace, a job interview, a performance review.
  • Chronic Stressors - no specific start date, no certain end, may be short or long in duration, repeats frequently. e.g.: Fear of job loss
  • Daily Stressors - These have specific onsets, short in duration, low in intensity. e.g.: jammed photocopier
  • Catastrophic Stressors - a disaster with direct threat of loss of life. These are very rare but have a specific onset and are intense. e.g.: terrorist attack, earthquake

Stressors in the Workplace
  • Workload
  • Work pace
  • Role conflict
  • Career concerns
  • Interpersonal relationships
  • Job Content and control over that content


General Adaptation Syndrome: Individuals respond to stress differently. Stress is natural as it is the body's way of protecting itself from danger.

There are three stages to stress response: ALARM-->RESISTANCE-->EXAUSTION

Stress Moderators

The individual's Personality - Type A Behaviours & Negative Affectivity are problematic
The Social Context - Does the person have a social support system?

Strain comes as a result of prolonged stress
  • Psychological Strain
  • Physical Strain
  • Behavioural Strain
  • Organizational Strain

Managing Stress and Strain in the workplace
Primary Interventions: Reduce or remove stressors
Secondary Interventions: Minimize negative outcomes - stress management programs
Tertiary Interventions: Therapy after the fact

Emerging Stressors
  • Workplace Violence
  • Sexual Harassment
  • Injustice at work
  • Technology

Chapter 7 Hazard Recognition and Assessment
  1. Hazard
  2. Event
  3. Incident
  4. Accident
  5. Injury (direct, Indirect, Acute Trama, Cronic Trama)
  6. Repetititive strain injury
Types of injuries
  1. Overt/tramatic injuries
  2. Over Exertion Injuries
  3. Repetitive Strain Injury
  4. Awkward work positions

Hazard Identification
  1. Ergonomic factors
  2. Human factors
  3. Situational factors
  4. Environmental factors

Developing a Hazard Identification Program
What prompts the request?
What is the nature of the hazard
What is the cost of the hazard
Components of Hazard Identfication
Walk through survey
Safety sampling
Analysis of Plant, Task and Jobs
  1. Geographical information
  2. Task and Job identy
  3. Task analysis
  4. Reports and audits
  5. Hazard analysis
  6. Risk Assessment = Probability of event x consequences of event x amount of exposure
  7. Follow up


Rationale for Hazard Assessment

Hazard, Risk & Safety - Understanding Risk Assessment, Management and Perception
OHS Chapter 8 – Hazard Control


  • Hazard Control refers to the program or processes used to establish preventative and corrective measures as the final stage of hazard recognition, assessment and control (RAC).
  • Goal: eliminate, reduce and control hazards.
  • Occurs at three levels: Pre-contact – Contact – Post-contact

Engineering Control – First level Control

  • Tool Design
  • Substitution
  • Workspace design – layout, displays, seating, lighting,
  • Process modification
  • Isolation/segregation
  • Purchasing
  • Machine Guarding

Administrative Controls – Second Level Control

  • This control manages the management involvement, training of employees, rotation of employees, environmental sampling and medical surveillance to protect individuals.
  • Safety Awareness – visible reminders, special events
  • Awards and Incentives
  • Housekeeping
  • Preventative Maintenance – PM, Work Permits, Lockout procedures, Confined space,

Contact Control – Third Level Control

  • Contact control – suppressions, barriers, modifications, substitution, isolation
  • Post-contact control – emergency response, lockout, authorized people only, disposition, Joint HS committee, accident reporting, communicate, Source-path-human
  • Record Keeping
Workplace BC - Accident Review
Chapter 10 - Safety Interventions

Safety Behaviour:
  • Interventions are categorized into:Engineering interventions; Administrative interventions & Behavioral interventions
  • Prefered: Engineering - eliminate

Behaviours that contribute to safe work:
  • Proper use of Hazard control
  • Development of safe work habits
  • Increased awareness & recognition of safe work habits
  • PPE use
  • Maintenance
  • Hygiene
  • Proper emergency response
  • Self monitoring

In order to work safely workers must have:
  • KSAs
  • Motivation
  • Opportunity

Safety can be enhanced by increasing the employee's ability, motivation and opportunity to work safely
Safety Performance = Ability * Motivation * Opportunity
How do we Motivate Safety?

Reinforcement Theory - external rewards and punishment
Goal Stting Theory - internal intentions

Chapter 11/12 - Emergency Response/Accident

  • Define Emergency
  • Emergency Preparedness Protocols
  • Emergency Planing

Emergency planning requires anticipating emergencies, preparing for emergencies, putting plans into action as needed, returning to normal, and learning from the experience.

Emergency plans need three components:
1) Precontact
2) Contact
3) Post Contact

Five stages of Crisis Management:
1) Signal Detection
2) Preparation
3) Damage Containment
4) Short and long terms plans to return to normalcy
5) Learning

Accident Investigation
Investigating accidents is important in hazard recognition, assessment and control. Accident investigations:
  1. Determine direct causes
  2. indentifies contibuting causes
  3. Seeks to prevent similar accidents
  4. Creates a permament record
  5. Determines cost (not just monetary costs)
  6. Promotes safety

Steps in Accident Investigation
  • Critical Factors - Timing, Severity, & Legal
  • Three things to Consider:
  • Human Factors-
  • Situational Factors
  • Environmental Factors

Investigative Models
  1. Observation & Walk-troughs
  2. Interviews
  3. Re enactments

Investigative Tools
  • Photos
  • Drawings
  • Computers
  • Records

Accident Analysis
  1. Domino Theory
  2. The Swiss Cheese Model
  3. Normal Accidents
  4. Cognitive Failures

Case: MayDay - The Gimly Glider

Final Exam Preview
The Final exam is worth 30% of your Final Grade
HN1400 – Occupational Health and Safety
ATTENTION: Students must do the WHMIS TRAINING MODULE prior to the end of exams.
Coverage: Chapters 8-12
Format: This test will consist of two parts:
  • Part 1 - 50 Multiple Choice questions @ 50%
  • Part 2 – 5 of 6 Short Answer question @ 10% each

  1. Define Hazard Control
  2. Describe the three stages in the hazard control process.
  3. Define and discuss the various pre-contact administrative controls used in the hazard control process
  4. Define and discuss the various pre-contact engineering controls used in the hazard control process
  5. Discuss the five basic categories of steps taken to manage contact control in the workplace.
  6. Discuss the basic steps taken in the aftermath of an event in the workplace.
  7. Safety behaviour is important in the workplace. Describe the three factors (conditions) necessary for individuals to work safely. How do these condition work together to affect safety performance?
  8. Describe the general categories of behaviors that contribute to safe working performance. Share an example of a training program that targets one of the behaviors.
  9. Define accident investigation and describe the aim and benefits of accident investigations.
  10. Incorporating what you have learned into your answer, discuss are the basic characteristics of a successful OHS Program

  1. What are the three key elements of an Emergency preparedness plan? Name and discuss each element.